Radiological anatomy General aspects Anatomy chapter 5 clinicians view internal anatomy with the aid of radiographic images and procedures. Proper interpretation of these images presupposes a detailed knowledge of anatomy. Radiography has proved particularly valuable in the detection of the early stages of deep-seated disease, when the possibility of cure is greatest.
During these early stages there is little departure from the normal, hence knowledge of the earliest detectable variations, that is, of "the borderlands of the normal and early pathological Radiographic diagnosis is the most important method of non-destructive testing of the living body.
There are a wide array of procedures that fall under the perview of radiology. The earliest of these utilized the interaction of ionizing radiation with the body in order to create an image. Plain radiographs involve generating x-rays that are directed at the part of the body that is to be examined.
The recognition that these rays can be harmful has resulted in procedures that restrict the area that is exposed columation and also that shield sensitive areas against the rays. Various methods of detection of x-rays have been developed.
The earliest of these relied on the direct interaction between photographic film and the x-rays. Subsequently, there was development of methods for enhancement of images using radiosensitive amplifying screens adjacent to x-ray film. Additionally, the interaction between x-rays and fluorescent screen permitted the viewing of moving images fluoroscopy.
More recently, methods for electronic detection and storage of information have afforded improved safety as well as the ability to store, manipulate and transmit information generated by these tests. Radio-opacity The fundamental principle of all radiographic tests that employ x-rays is that different body tissues have a different capacity to block or absorb x-rays.
The following tissue densities produce the usual radiographic image, and they are arranged in order of increasing radio-opacity i. Air, as found, for example, in the trachea and lungs, the stomach and intestine, and the paranasal sinuses.
Calcific due to the presence of calcium and phosphorusfor example, in the skeleton. Enamel of the teeth.
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Dense foreign bodies, for example, metallic fillings in the teeth. Also radio-opaque contrast media, such as a barium meal in the stomach or intravascular contrast.
When the density of a structure is too similar to that of adjacent structures, it is possible to use contrast media to enhance or outline its contours. Contrast media are classified as radiolucent e.
Plain film radiographs often, but inappropriately called x-rays display the shadow of the body part on the film. The farther the body part is from the film, the more magnified it will appear, but also its borders will be less distinct fig. Additionally, since the image is a 2-dimentional representation of a 3-dimentional object, the antero-posterior location of structures must be inferred.
Images taken from a two perspectives may permit the skilled radiologist to interpret the antero-posterior location of objects by their displacement relative to one another in images taken from orthogonal right angles directions fig.
Plane film radiographs are still the most common method of viewing osseous structures or the chest. Positioning The views used in plain radiographic images are named for the part of the body that is nearest the film, for example, anterior, right lateral, left anterior oblique.
Alternatively, the terms anteroposterior and postero-anterior are used when the x-rays have passed through the object from front to back tube in front of object, film behind or from back to front tube behind object, film in frontrespectively.
Radiographic postioning is highly standardized in order to facilitate interpretation. Views are selected to highlight the particular areas or structures being examined.Chapter 5 The Skeletal System AXIAL SKELETON Skull 9.
Using the key choices, identify the bones indicated by the following descrip- 77 tions. Enter the appropriate term or letter in the answer blanks.
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 5: The Skeletal System Name: _____ Objectives- By the end of this chapter I will be able to: 1. Study 90 Anatomy Chapter 5 flashcards from Naomi H.
migratory phase, after formation of a scab, phagocytic cells clear debris, cells of the stratum basale migrate the edges of the wound.
Anatomy Chapter 5 10/20/ ° Integumentary System ° The skin and its accessory organs make up the integumentary system ° Deeper layer of the skin is well vascularized ° Sensory autonomic and sympathetic nerve fibers ensure communication to and from the brain ° Epidermis ° Empidermis is composed of keratinized stratified squamous.
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Chapter 5 The Integumentary System • Skin and its accessory structures – structure – function – growth and repair – development – aging – disorders General Anatomy • A large organ composed of all 4 tissue types • 22 square feet • mm thick • Weight 10 lbs.