This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. July Learn how and when to remove this template message With the advent of the concept of g, or general intelligencesome form of empirically measuring differences in intelligence, was possible, but results have been inconsistent.
Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like?
We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives — choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others — based on theories about why and how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social and physical world that makes it understandable.
Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. Analytical Task The general analytical problem.
In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently. Our analytical task this week is to attempt a "simple" causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress.
The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it.
We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison.
When we start with the general question "what causes X?
Examples of such questions might be "why do people in group A do X more than those in group B? If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that 1 vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and 2 that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way.
For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently?
Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way.
Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists.
Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity. What causes differences in dress "codes" across cultures? What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress?
The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies and time. Clothing differs between "primitive" cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently.
How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.
Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by context? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others?
For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations.
If male and female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences.
Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences.
While considering how to explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern. The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop.
The gender differences in apparel and appearance adjustment more generally could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently.BY ANNE FAUSTO-STERLING S CHERYL CHASE STEPPED TO THE FRONT of the packed meeting room in the Sher- responding to an essay I had written for The Sciences, titled "The Five Sexes" [March/April ].
In that article I argued In "The Five Sexes" I reported an estimate by a psy- chologist expert in the treatment of intersexuals, suggesting. Anne Fausto-Sterling (born July 30, ) is the Nancy Duke Lewis Professor of Biology and Gender Studies at Brown University.
She participates actively in the field of sexology and has written extensively on the fields of biology of gender, sexual identity, gender identity, and gender roles.
Life and career Fausto-Sterling received her Bachelor of Arts degree in zoology from University. Recovering as a doctoral candidate in the same program in , reading Anne FaustoSterling's "Five Sexes" essay and meeting Morgan Holmes, president of the Canadian chapter of the Intersex Society of North America, changed my life again.
The reading The Five Sexes. Revisited was about the deceit of today’s two-sex system in society. The cardinal issue Anne Fausto-Sterling addresses is that there are people born outside of dimorphism and most people do non understand this (pg.
). The most of import point or cardinal statement is that the two-sexes. Essay on Anne Fausto-Sterling's "The Five Sexes" Words | 5 Pages sources, as well as others, have evolved into an expectation that has become institutionalized within society.
The feminist method is a means of conducting of scientific investigations and generating theory from an explicitly feminist standpoint. Feminist methodologies are varied, but tend to have a few common aims or characteristics, including seeking to overcome biases in research, bringing about social change, displaying human diversity, and acknowledging the position of the researcher.