Mussolini ordered Balbo's replacement, General Rodolfo Grazianito launch an attack into Egypt immediately. Graziani complained to Mussolini that his forces were not properly equipped for such an operation, and that an attack into Egypt could not possibly succeed; nevertheless, Mussolini ordered him to proceed.
The war left the victors exhausted and demoralized, the losers angry and resentful, and everyone wondering what went wrong. This scheme failed to reduce tensions for four reasons. The war was also followed by sharp though brief economic recessions and, in some countries, by hyperinflation.
Enlightenment liberalism had failed to prevent a huge blood bath, created a peace that nobody was happy with, and wrecked the economy. New ideas, many thought, were needed.
Approbation of Police and Military Forces. They are highly organized and skillful at what they do, and respect competence and efficiency. They will not long respect a government that is incompetent and inefficient. Once in office, they proceeded to consolidate and expand their power through technically legal means.
Fascist ideology was vague and protean. It is commonly observed that fascism was more a matter of the gut than of the head. Clearly those who joined fascist parties often did so from shrewd self-interest, but the same could be said of those who join any party.
It was the emotional appeal of fascism — the notion that through sheer hope and force of will difficult and long-standing problems could easily be resolved — that set it apart. Triumph of the Will. This idea of course was not new and is still popular. This doctrine appears in many forms — e.
In its weak form it holds merely that positive thinking is more likely to achieve a result than negative thinking. Generally this form is harmless and often productive. In its strong form, it holds that positive thinking will in fact produce the intended result.
In this form it is indistinguishable from magic. Soteriology of national unity, immediate and direct resolution of problems, and intolerance for dissent. This was a fixed core goal of fascism.
It held that social conflict could be transcended through service to the nation-state as the embodiment of the will of the people. With all serving the same master, internal conflict would disappear and the people with certain out-groups excluded of course would achieve their destiny.
Immediate and direct resolution of problems. This is often confounded with violence. Practically however it had more to do with cutting through red tape and taking shortcuts. Sometimes this involved squadrist violence, and sometimes it did not.
It is important to realize that excessive bureaucratization and ineffective justice systems played a role in the rise of fascism. An example will be helpful.
Fascist thugs beat up shopkeeper. He has bribed the police and nothing happens. He has bribed the judge and his case is dismissed. The police arrest him, and he is promptly fined and imprisoned.
He is cited and the case drags on for a year, ultimately disposed of with a plea to a lesser charge or a deferred prosecution agreement. But if scenario d is not working, is scenario a worse than the remaining choices? At least with scenario a substantial justice is done. And these were the kinds of choices that fascists had to make.
Direct action did achieve immediate results and contributed greatly to the popularity of fascism in its ascendant stages. It would be trivial to observe that since the fascist model required individuals to serve the nation-state as the embodiment of the popular will, and subordinate their interests to it, dissent would be unthinkable for any true believer.
A stronger reason for suppressing dissent can be found in the emotional characteristics of fascism. Accepting that ideas firmly held become reality, a dissenter imperiled the collective spell, and dissent was seen as a species of malefic witchcraft.
Maintain Order Ensure that the people are secure in possession of their lives, liberty, and property. Locke had this one right.Oct 29, · Watch video · By , after years of fighting in World War II, Italy was viewed by its own citizens as losing the war.
While making a round of . Italian Fascists identified their ideology as being connected to the legacy of ancient Rome and particularly the Roman Empire: Julius Caesar and Augustus were idolized by Italian Fascists.
Italian Fascism views the modern state of Italy as the heir of the Roman Empire and emphasized the need for renovation of Italian culture to "return to Roman values".
An exploration of the nature and history of capitalism. Global capitalism, colonies and Third-World economic realities.
The rise of fascism in Italy began during World War I, when Benito Mussolini and other radicals formed a political group (called a fasci) supporting the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary.
The first meeting of Mussolini’s Fasci of Revolutionary Action was held on January 24, Fascism during WWII was a catalyst of the war, but not its cause. If not for Nazi Fascism, it would never have gotten enough popular support to control the government.
The best definitions of fascism come from the recent writings of scholars who have devoted years to the study of fascist movements and have identified the key attributes that distinguish fascism .