Issues and challenges of slum upgrading

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Issues and challenges of slum upgrading

Hus, an Old English word The English word house derives directly from the Old English hus meaning "dwelling, shelter, home, house," which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic husan reconstructed by etymological analysis which is of unknown origin.

The symbol was called "bayt", "bet" or "beth" in various related languages, and became betathe Greek letter, before it was used by the Romans. Feng shuioriginally a Chinese method of moving houses according to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has recently expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house, although no actual effect has ever been demonstrated.

Feng shui can also mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces.

The "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, and thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces. Parts Many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several very small rooms for other various reasons.

In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock like cattle often share part of the house with human beings. Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroombathroomkitchen or cooking area, and a living room.

A typical " foursquare house" as pictured occurred commonly in the early history of the US where they were mainly built, with a staircase in the center of the house, surrounded by four rooms, and connected to other sections of the home including in more recent eras a garage.

History of the interior Floor plan of a " foursquare " house Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, however it can be traced back to the simplest form of shelters. Furthermore, the houses accommodated numerous people, including family, relatives, employees, servants and their guests.

Unlike the qualities and uses of the Manor Houses, most rooms of the palazzo contained no purpose, yet were given several doors. These doors adjoined rooms in which Robin Evans describes as a "matrix of discrete but thoroughly interconnected chambers.

Where passages and staircases are used, as inevitably they are, they nearly always connect just one space to another and never serve as general distributors of movement.

Thus, despite the precise architectural containment offered by the addition of room upon room, the villa was, in terms of occupation, an open plan, relatively permeable to the numerous members of the household.

This new extension was revolutionary at the time, allowing the integration of one door per room, in which all universally connected to the same corridor. English architect Sir Roger Pratt states "the common way in the middle through the whole length of the house, [avoids] the offices from one molesting the other by continual passing through them.

More privacy is offered to the occupant as Pratt further claims, "the ordinary servants may never publicly appear in passing to and fro for their occasions there.

Sociologist Witold Rybczynski wrote, "the subdivision of the house into day and night uses, and into formal and informal areas, had begun. It was important for the Dutch to separate work from domesticity, as the home became an escape and a place of comfort.

This way of living and the home has been noted as highly similar to the contemporary family and their dwellings. House layouts also incorporated the idea of the corridor as well as the importance of function and privacy.

By the end of the 17th Century, the house layout was soon transformed to become employment-free, enforcing these ideas for the future. This came in favour for the industrial revolutiongaining large-scale factory production and workers.

The names of parts of a house often echo the names of parts of other buildings, but could typically include:In the past two decades through a process called “Enumeration” through which the members collect at city level data about slums, Slum Dwellers International have created a mechanism which serves to create a city wide network of urban informal settlements with the intention of the dwellers to see.

Issues and challenges of slum upgrading

3-D Printer 1. A 3-D printer is a machine that prints objects by laying down successive layers of plastic or other materials. 3-D printers have existed since the s. MP3. AUDIO: Sheela Patel – The federation model of community organizing. SYNOPSIS. Slum/Shack Dwellers International (SDI) is a transnational organisation whose primary members are federated slum federations from 33 countries in Asia Africa and Latin America.

1. Introduction. One of the largest risks to people living in urban areas in the developing world is a lack of improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) benjaminpohle.com to water and sanitation is an important factor in determining social vulnerability to natural hazards, not only for meeting immediate needs, but also for the wider application of relevant disaster prevention.

JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.

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