Does the child have recurrent thoughts of death or suicide? Conduct disorder Is the child violent or cruel toward people or animals?
Submitted by Douglas Cowan P The most recent models describing what is happening neurologically in the brains of people with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder suggest that several areas of the brain may be affected by the disorder.
Each of these areas of the brain is associated with various functions. The slow brainwave activity indicates a lack of control in the cortex of the brain. Medications, EEG Biofeedback training, Attend Nutraceuticalsand some other interventions, seem to change this and normalize, at least temporarily.
Impulsivity, Hyperactivity, and Lack of Inhibition The frontal lobes help us to pay attention to tasks, focus concentration, make good decisions, plan ahead, learn and remember what we have learned.
The frontal lobes also help us to behave appropriately for a given situation. Emotional issues such as anger, frustration, and irritability that come on impulsively in some types of ADHD probably come from the pre-frontal cortex. The inhibitory mechanisms of the cortex keep us from being hyperactive, from saying things out of turn, and from getting mad at inappropriate times, for examples.
These inhibitory mechanisms of the cortex help us to "inhibit" our behaviors. When the inhibitory mechanisms of the brain aren't working as efficiently as they oughtthen we can see results of what are sometimes called "dis-inhibition disorders" such as impulsive behaviors, quick temper, poor decision making, hyperactivity, and so on.
The limbic system is the base of our emotions and our highly vigilant look-out tower. If the limbic system is over-activated, a person might have wide mood swings, or quick temper outbursts. He might also be "over-aroused," quick to startle, touching everything around him, hyper-vigilant.
A normally functioning limbic system would provide for normal emotional changes, normal levels of energy, normal sleep routines, and normal levels of coping with stress. A dysfunctional limbic system results in problems with those areas.
Attention Deficit Disorder might affect one, two, or all three of these areas, resulting in several different "styles" or "profiles" of children and adults with Attention Deficit Disorder.
Glutamate, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and a2 Receptors What is the relationship between dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate? One-third of the neurotransmitters in the brain are glutamate, and brain research is now looking at the intricate relationships between glutamate, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the functioning of the pre-frontal cortex.
Glutamine is the pre-curser of glutamate. Research is revealing that the glutamate network neurotransmissions from the pre-frontal cortex to other areas of the brain are enhanced by dopamine and norepinephrine.
Too little dopamine or norepinephrine is a problem, and too much is a problem. And the importance of glutamate in PFC functioning is beginning to come to the forefront in research. One leading researcher is Amy Arnsten, Ph. According to its website, the Arnsten Lab "studies molecular influences on the higher cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex PFCwith the overarching goal of developing rational treatments for cognitive disorders and mental illness Research has focused on how the catecholamines norepinephrine NE and dopamine DApowerfully and dynamically modulate PFC cognitive function and physiology through intracellular signaling mechanisms.
The Arnsten Lab has been able show how the relationship between dopamine and norepinephrine and the ratios of dopamine to norepinephrine, can impact and improve cognitive functions such as focus, memory, and attention.Inattentive ADHD used to be called attention deficit disorder.
Children who have it have a lot of difficulty paying attention. Children who have it have a lot of difficulty paying attention.
The side effects and risks of Mifepristone & Misoprostol include the following: Cramping, nausea, vomiting diarrhea, heavy bleeding, infection The procedure is unsuccessful approximately % of the time with the potential of requiring an additional surgical abortion procedure to complete the termination.
Emerging evidence adds to the growing support that stimulant medication may have benefits beyond that of improving symptomology. A newly published qualitative literature review found stimulants may provide neuroprotective effects for children with ADHD.
1 In their analysis, the researchers included. Side effects are a major area of concern for many parents considering medication for their child's ADHD. Indeed, side effects might add to the overall stress of managing a child's condition.
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Effective ADHD treatment depends on an appropriate diagnosis (see Diagnosing ADHD).
A comprehensive medical evaluation of the child must be conducted to establish a correct diagnosis of ADHD and to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms.