Posted on August 29, by Scott Alexander [Epistemic status: Pieced together from memory years after the event. I may have mis-remembered some things or gotten them in the wrong order.
The Size and Power of the Bureaucracy. A bureaucracy is a large organization composed of appointed officials in which authority is divided among several managers. Bureaucracy is a system of management where the authority and power are hierarchical in nature where there is a specialization of labour and any action is effected with formal rules and regulations. Scientific management or Taylorism is a system of management which was brought to improve economic performance especially labour productivity. The IELTS writing task 2 sample answer below has examiner comments and is band score 9. The topic of social media is common and this IELTS essay question was reported in the IELTS test. Check the model essay and then read the comments. Many people believe that social networking sites (such as.
References and Further Reading 1. Biography Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno was born in to relatively affluent parents in central Germany. His mother was a gifted singer, of Italian descent, and his father was a Jewish wine merchant.
Adorno's partial Jewish status was to have an immeasurable effect upon his life and philosophical works. He was an academically and musically gifted child. Initially, it appeared that Adorno was destined for a musical career.
During the early to mid s Adorno studied music composition under Alban Berg in Vienna and his talent was recognized by the likes of Berg and Schoenberg.
However, in the late s, Adorno joined the faculty of the University of Frankfurt and devoted the greatest part of his considerable talent and energy to the study and teaching of philosophy. Adorno's Jewish heritage forced him to eventually seek exile from Nazi Germany, initially registering as a doctoral student at Merton College, Oxford and then, as a member of the University of Frankfurt's Institute for Social Research, in New York concluding his exile in Southern California.
Adorno did not complete his Oxford doctorate and appeared to be persistently unhappy in his exilic condition. Along with other members of the Institute for Social Research, Adorno returned to the University of Frankfurt immediately after the completion of the war, taking up a professorial chair in philosophy and sociology.
Adorno remained a professor at the University of Frankfurt until his death in He was married to Gretel and they had no children.
Philosophical Influences and Motivation Adorno is generally recognized within the The nature of the bureaucracy essay tradition of philosophy as being one of the foremost philosophers of the 20th Century. His collected works comprise some twenty-three volumes.
In terms of both style and content, Adorno's writings defy convention. In seeking to attain a clear understanding of the works of any philosopher, one should begin by asking oneself what motivated his or her philosophical labors. What was Adorno attempting to achieve through his philosophical writings?
Adorno's philosophy is fundamentally concerned with human suffering. It is founded upon a central moral conviction: The shadow of human suffering falls across practically all of Adorno's writings. Adorno considered his principal task to be that of testifying to the persistence of such conditions and thereby, at best, retaining the possibility that such conditions might be changed for the better.
The central tension in Adorno's diagnosis of what he termed 'damaged life' consists in the unrelentingly critical character of his evaluation of the effects of modern societies upon their inhabitants, coupled with a tentative, but absolutely essential, commitment to a belief in the possibility of the elimination of unnecessary suffering.
As in the work of all genuine forms of critical philosophy, Adorno's otherwise very bleak diagnosis of modernity is necessarily grounded within a tentative hope for a better world.
Adorno's philosophy is typically considered to have been most influenced by the works of three previous German philosophers: HegelMarx, and Nietzsche. In addition, his association with the Institute of Social Research profoundly affected the development of Adorno's thought.
I shall begin by discussing this last, before briefly summarizing the influence of the first three. The Institute, or the 'Frankfurt School', as it was later to become known, was an inter-disciplinary body comprising specialists in such fields as philosophy, economics, political science, legal theory, psychoanalysis, and the study of cultural phenomena such as music, film, and mass entertainment.
The establishment of The Frankfurt School was financed by the son of a wealthy grain merchant who wished to create a western European equivalent to the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow.
The Intellectual labor of the Institute in Frankfurt thus explicitly aimed at contributing to the overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of socialism. However, from onwards, under the Directorship of Max Horkheimer, the work of the Frankfurt School began to show subtle but highly significant deviations from orthodox Marxism.
Principally, the School began to question, and ultimately reject, the strict economic determinism to which orthodox Marxism was enthralled at the time. This coincided with a firm belief amongst the members of the School that social phenomena, such as culture, mass entertainment, education, and the family played a direct role in maintaining oppression.
Marxists had typically dismissed the importance of such phenomena on the grounds that they were mere reflections of the underlying economic basis of the capitalist mode of production.
An undue concern for such phenomena was thus generally thought of as, at best, a distraction from the real task of overthrowing capitalism, at worst a veritable hindrance. In contrast, the Frankfurt School argued that such phenomena were fundamentally important, in their own right. The Frankfurt School thus challenged the economically-centric character of Marxism.
The Frankfurt School's rejection of economic determinism and interest in the social and cultural planes of human oppression culminated in a far more circumspect appraisal of the likelihood of capitalism's demise. The Frankfurt School rejected the Marx's belief in the economic inevitability of capitalism experiencing cataclysmic economic crises.
The Frankfurt School continued to argue that capitalism remained an oppressive system, but increasingly viewed the system as far more adaptable and robust than Marxists had given it credit for. The Frankfurt School came to portray capitalism as potentially capable of averting its own demise indefinitely.
The final break with orthodox Marxism occurred with the Frankfurt School's coming to condemn the Soviet Union as a politically oppressive system. Politically the Frankfurt School sought to position itself equidistant from both Soviet socialism and liberal capitalism.Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America.
Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.
1. Harold Wilensky put it baldly and succinctly: "Economic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development." Harold Wilensky, The Welfare State and Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, ), p. 2. Thus, Flora and Alber find no correlation between levels of industrialization and social insurance programs of 12 European nations between the s and the s.
First published in , Street-Level Bureaucracy received critical acclaim for its insightful study of how public service workers, in effect, function as policy decision makers, as they wield their considerable discretion in the day-to-day implementation of public programs.
A preliminary investigation of Hall’s scales for the dimensions of bureaucracy revealed that there is a hierarchy of authority, division of labour, presence of rules, procedural specifications, impersonality, and personnel standards of technical competence (Jozef, ) which makes up the bureaucratic nature.
The Middle Managers of Murder. Introduction. Bureaucracy is not unique to Germany, however its application by the National Socialists as a tool of totalitarian oppression is peerless. Published: Mon, 5 Dec Police decision-making relies on a myriad of factors to include the individual officer’s characteristics, the environment the officer works in, the characteristics of the offender, the situation the officer finds themselves in, and the organization that influences them.